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Hemorrhoids: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Hemorrhoids, also known as piles, are swollen veins in the rectum and anus. They can occur internally or externally, causing discomfort and pain. Nearly three out of four persons are thought to encounter hemorrhoids at some point in their lives, making them fairly prevalent.

Definition of Hemorrhoids

Swollen blood vessels, called hemorrhoids, form in the rectum or anus. Internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids are the two main categories. Internal hemorrhoids are located inside the rectum and are frequently painless, as opposed to external hemorrhoids, which are located under the skin around the anus and can be unpleasant and painful.

Types of Hemorrhoids

There are two main types of hemorrhoids: internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids.

Internal Hemorrhoids

Grade 1: The hemorrhoids are located in the rectum and are not prolapsed.

Grade 2: The hemorrhoids prolapse during bowel movements but retract on their own.

Grade 3: The hemorrhoids prolapse during bowel movements and require manual repositioning.

Grade 4: The hemorrhoids are prolapsed and cannot be manually repositioned.

External Hemorrhoids

Thrombosed Hemorrhoids: The painful disease known as thrombosed hemorrhoids can develop when blood accumulates in an external hemorrhoid and has the potential to clot.

Causes of Hemorrhoids

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Hemorrhoids, also known as piles, can develop due to various factors. Understanding the causes can help in preventing their occurrence and managing the condition effectively. Let’s delve more into the causes of hemorrhoids:

Straining during Bowel Movements: One of the main reasons why people get hemorrhoids is when they strain during bowel motions. Hemorrhoids can form when you pass stool with too much force because it puts strain on the blood vessels in the rectal area.

  • Chronic Constipation or Diarrhea: Hemorrhoids can develop as a result of chronic constipation or diarrhoea. Constipation causes hard and dry stools, making it difficult to pass, while diarrhea can result in frequent and loose stools, leading to irritation and inflammation in the anal area.
  • Sitting for Prolonged Periods: Sitting for long durations, especially on hard surfaces, can put pressure on the rectal veins, increasing the risk of hemorrhoids. People who have sedentary jobs or spend extended periods sitting are more susceptible to developing hemorrhoids.
  • Obesity: Obesity and excessive body weight can put extra pressure on the rectal veins, which increases their susceptibility to edema and inflammation. Keeping a healthy weight can fend off hemorrhoids.
  • Pregnancy: Pregnant women are more susceptible to hemorrhoids due to increased pressure on the rectal veins. The growing uterus and hormonal changes during pregnancy can contribute to the development of hemorrhoids. Fortunately, hemorrhoids caused by pregnancy often resolve after childbirth.
  • Aging: Older adults are more susceptible to hemorrhoids because the tissues in the rectal region deteriorate over time. Weaker vein walls and reduced blood flow, both age-related consequences, increase the likelihood of hemorrhoidal swelling.

Symptoms of Hemorrhoids

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Hemorrhoids, or piles, can cause a range of uncomfortable symptoms. Recognizing these symptoms is essential for timely diagnosis and appropriate management of the condition. Here are some typical hemorrhoids signs and symptoms:

  • Rectal Bleeding: One of the primary symptoms of hemorrhoids is rectal bleeding. Bright crimson blood may appear on the toilet paper after wiping or in the toilet bowl following a bowel movement as a symptom of this. Depending on how severe the hemorrhoids are, there may be little or a lot of bleeding.
  • Itching and Irritation: Hemorrhoids can cause persistent itching and irritation in the anal area. This discomfort is often caused by the presence of mucus or stool residue around the hemorrhoids, leading to skin irritation and itching.
  • Swelling and Pain: Hemorrhoids can cause swelling and inflammation in the anal region. External hemorrhoids, in particular, may appear as swollen lumps around the anus. The swelling can be accompanied by tenderness and discomfort, making sitting or bowel movements painful.
  • Discomfort or Pain During Bowel Movements: Hemorrhoids can make bowel movements uncomfortable and even painful. The act of passing stool can put pressure on the swollen blood vessels, leading to sharp or throbbing pain during and after bowel movements.
  • A Lump or Swelling Near the Anus: In the case of external hemorrhoids, a visible lump or swelling may be present near the anus. This lump is caused by the swelling of blood vessels under the skin. It can be tender to the touch and may cause discomfort or pain.

Diagnosis of Hemorrhoids

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A healthcare provider would normally do a physical examination and analyze your medical history to identify the presence of hemorrhoids and determine their severity. A diagnosis of hemorrhoids may be made using the following procedures:

  • Medical History: You should talk to your doctor about any symptoms you may be experiencing, such as bleeding, discomfort, itching, or swelling in the anal area. Additionally, they’ll ask you about your bowel motions and any pertinent medical issues.
  • Physical Examination: During a physical examination, your healthcare provider will visually inspect the anal area to look for external hemorrhoids. They may also perform a digital rectal examination by inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to check for internal hemorrhoids or other abnormalities.
  • Anoscope, Sigmoidoscopy, or Colonoscopy: If internal hemorrhoids or other rectal disorders are suspected, your doctor could occasionally advise additional diagnostic tests. These may include sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy, which uses a flexible tube with a camera to view the rectum and lower colon, or anoscope, which includes utilizing a small, illuminated tube to inspect the interior of the rectum.
  • Grading and Staging: Based on the examination findings, healthcare professionals may use a grading system to classify the severity of internal hemorrhoids. This system typically ranges from Grade I (mild) to Grade IV (severe) and helps guide the treatment approach.
  • Ruling Out Other Conditions: Since the symptoms of hemorrhoids can overlap with other rectal conditions, your doctor may order additional tests or investigations to rule out other possible causes of your symptoms. Examples include sigmoidoscopies, colonoscopies, and facal occult blood tests.

Treatment Options

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Hemorrhoids can be treated in a variety of ways, depending on the severity of the problem and the number of symptoms that are present. Here are some common methods for treating hemorrhoids:

Lifestyle Changes

Making some lifestyle changes can help to reduce symptoms and stop hemorrhoids from recurring. These may consist of:

  1. Increasing Fiber Intake: Regular bowel movements can be encouraged by eating a high-fiber diet rich in fresh produce, whole grains, and legumes. This diet can also soften the stool, which eases the strain experienced during bowel movements.
  2. Staying Hydrated: Constipation can be avoided by drinking enough water throughout the day to keep the stools soft.
  3. Avoiding Straining during Bowel Movements: It’s important to avoid excessive straining while passing stool. If needed, using a stool softener or fiber supplement can help ease bowel movements.
  4. Exercising Regularly: Engaging in regular physical activity can improve bowel regularity and prevent constipation, reducing the risk of hemorrhoids.
  5. Avoiding Prolonged Sitting or Standing: Taking breaks and avoiding prolonged periods of sitting or standing can help reduce pressure on the rectal veins.

Home Remedies

Several home remedies can provide relief from hemorrhoid symptoms. These may include:

  1. Warm Baths: Ten to fifteen minutes spent soaking in a warm bath will assist reduce swelling and offer momentary pain and itching relief.
  2. Applying Ice Packs: Applying ice packs to the affected area can help numb the area and reduce swelling and discomfort.
  3. Using over-the-counter creams or ointments: To reduce itch and irritation, apply lotions or ointments that contain components like hydrocortisone.


In some cases, medications may be prescribed to manage hemorrhoid symptoms. These can include:

  • Topical Creams or Ointments: Prescription-strength lotions or ointments containing hydrocortisone or other anti-inflammatory agents may be advised to reduce itching, swelling, and irritation.
  • Stool Softeners or Fiber Supplements: These medications can help soften the stool and make bowel movements easier, reducing the strain on the hemorrhoids.
  • Over-the-Counter Pain Relievers: Ibuprofen is an example of an NSAID that can help reduce the pain and suffering that come with hemorrhoids.

Surgical Procedures

If conservative measures fail to provide relief or if the hemorrhoids are severe, surgical intervention may be necessary. Some common surgical procedures for hemorrhoids include:

  1. Rubber Band Ligation: Rubber bands are wrapped around the hemorrhoids’ bases during this treatment to stop the blood flow, which causes the hemorrhoids to contract and be removed.
  2. Sclerotherapy: A chemical solution is injected into the hemorrhoid, causing it to shrink.
  3. Infrared Coagulation: Heat is applied to the hemorrhoid to coagulate and shrink it.
  4. Hemorrhoidectomy: In extreme circumstances, hemorrhoids may need to be surgically removed.

Prevention Tips

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While there may be no way to totally avoid the danger of hemorrhoids, taking some preventative actions will help increase the possibility that they won’t happen. Here are some recommendations for avoiding hemorrhoids:

  • Maintain a Healthy Weight: Being overweight puts additional strain on the rectal veins, which raises the risk of hemorrhoids. A balanced diet and consistent exercise are necessary for maintaining a healthy weight.
  • Consume a High-Fiber Diet: Increase your consumption of fiber-rich foods such fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and other foods. Since fiber provides the stool volume, it is easier to pass and helps with constipation.
  • Avoid Prolonged Sitting or Standing: Take breaks and avoid prolonged periods of sitting or standing, as this can put pressure on the rectal veins. If you have a sedentary job, try to incorporate regular movement and stretching throughout the day.
  • Exercise Regularly: Engage in regular physical activity to promote healthy bowel function and prevent constipation. Exercise improves blood circulation and helps maintain overall health.
  • Practice Good Anal Hygiene: After bowel movements, clean the anal area gently with unscented, soft toilet paper or moistened wipes. Avoid excessive wiping, as it can irritate the sensitive skin in the anal area.
  • Avoid Straining during Bowel Movements: Take your time when passing stool and avoid straining. If needed, use a stool softener or fiber supplement to promote regular bowel movements.


Understanding hemorrhoid pain is crucial for effectively managing this common condition. You can take proactive measures to relieve discomfort and stop recurrence by becoming familiar with the causes, symptoms, diagnoses, and treatment options. Do not forget to alter your lifestyle, look into natural treatments, and, if required, consult a doctor. You may reclaim your comfort and raise your standard of living with the appropriate strategy.

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