Diagram showing different types of uterine fibroids and their locations within the uterus.
Uterine Fibroids

What Do Uterine Fibroids Look Like?

Non-cancerous growths called uterine fibroids form inside the uterus. They go by the names leiomyomas and myomas as well. These growths come in a range of sizes, from pea-sized to grapefruit-sized. The prevalence of uterine fibroids is high, particularly in women who are fertile. This article will discuss the appearance, causes, symptoms, and potential treatments of uterine fibroids.

What Do Uterine Fibroids Look Like?

Uterine fibroids can have various appearances, depending on their size and location within the uterus. Here are some common characteristics of uterine fibroids:

  1. Size: Fibroids can range in size from very small, barely visible nodules to large masses that can distort the shape of the uterus.
  2. Texture: Fibroids are typically firm to the touch and can feel like round lumps or nodules within the uterine wall.
  3. Color: The color of uterine fibroids can vary, but they are often whitish or pinkish in appearance.
  4. Location: Anywhere in the uterus, including the inner lining (submucosal), the muscle wall (intramural), and the outside surface (subserosal), can generate fibroids.
  5. Shape: Fibroids may be round, oval, or irregularly shaped, depending on their growth pattern and location.

In some cases, it may cause the uterus to become enlarged, leading to a visible bulge in the abdomen. However, many fibroids are small and may not be easily detectable without imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI.

Causes of Uterine Fibroids

Though their precise aetiologia is unknown, a number of variables may play a role in the development of uterine fibroids. These include:

  1. Hormonal Factors: Estrogen and progesterone, two hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle, appear to play a role in the growth of fibroids. Fibroids tend to grow during reproductive years when hormone levels are high and typically shrink after menopause when hormone levels decline.
  2. Genetic Predisposition: There may be a hereditary component to the development of fibroids as women who have a family history of the condition are more prone to acquire them themselves.
  3. Ethnicity: Studies have shown that African American women are more likely to develop fibroids and tend to have larger and more numerous fibroids compared to women of other ethnicities.
  4. Other Factors: Obesity, a diet high in red meat and low in fruits and vegetables, and early onset of menstruation may also increase the risk of developing fibroids.

Symptoms of Uterine Fibroids

Many women who have uterine fibroids may not even be aware that they have them or have any symptoms at all. However, some women may have the following symptoms, which vary based on the size, number, and location of the fibroids:

  1. Heavy or Prolonged Menstrual Bleeding: Fibroids can cause heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) or prolonged periods.
  2. Pelvic Pain or Pressure: Large fibroids or fibroids located near the surface of the uterus can cause pelvic pain or pressure, especially during menstruation or sexual intercourse.
  3. Frequent Urination: Fibroids that press against the bladder can cause frequent urination or difficulty emptying the bladder completely.
  4. Constipation or Bloating: Fibroids that press against the rectum can cause constipation, bloating, or difficulty with bowel movements.
  5. Enlarged Abdomen: In some cases, fibroids can cause the uterus to become enlarged, leading to a visible bulge or abdominal distention.

Treatment Options

The degree of symptoms, the size and location of the fibroids, and the woman’s future hopes for pregnancy all influence how uterine fibroids are treated. Possible course of treatment options include:

  1. Watchful Waiting: If fibroids are small and not causing any symptoms, a doctor may recommend a “watchful waiting” approach, with regular monitoring to track any changes in size or symptoms.
  2. Medications: Hormonal medications such as birth control pills, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, or progestin-releasing intrauterine devices (IUDs) may help manage symptoms such as heavy bleeding and pelvic pain.
  3. Minimally Invasive Procedures: Procedures such as uterine artery embolization, myomectomy (surgical removal of fibroids), or focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) can be used to shrink or remove fibroids while preserving the uterus.
  4. Hysterectomy: In cases where fibroids are large, numerous, or causing severe symptoms, a hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) may be recommended as a permanent solution.
  5. Endometrial Ablation: This procedure involves destroying the lining of the uterus to reduce menstrual bleeding and may be used to treat fibroids that are causing heavy periods.


Uterine fibroids are common noncancerous growths that can vary in size, shape, and location within the uterus. While many women with fibroids do not experience any symptoms, others may have symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, or pressure. Treatment options for uterine fibroids range from watchful waiting and medications to minimally invasive procedures and surgery, depending on the severity of symptoms and the woman’s reproductive plans. If you suspect you have uterine fibroids or are experiencing symptoms, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider for proper evaluation and management.

Aahana Khan is a versatile content writer who skillfully combines her expertise in biotechnology with creative communication. Her strong educational background in biotechnology provides a scientific lens to her writing, making complicated ideas easy to understand for a wide range of readers. Driven by her passion for effective communication, she seamlessly transitioned from her biotechnology roots to a thriving career in content writing.

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