Illustration depicting a woman experiencing lower left abdominal pain.
Abdominal Pain

What Causes Lower Left Abdominal Pain in Females

Lower left abdominal pain in females can be a concerning and uncomfortable symptom. It can arise from various causes, ranging from mild to severe. Understanding the possible reasons behind this pain, along with associated symptoms and treatment options, is crucial for proper management and relief.

Anatomy of the Lower Left Abdomen

The lower left abdomen contains various organs and structures, and pain or discomfort in this area can be attributed to different causes. Here are some of the key anatomical structures in the lower left abdomen:

  1. Colon (Large Intestine): The descending colon, part of the large intestine, is located on the left side of the abdomen. It extends from the splenic flexure (near the spleen) down to the sigmoid colon.
  2. Sigmoid Colon: This is the S-shaped portion of the colon that connects the descending colon to the rectum. The lower left abdomen contains it.
  3. Left Kidney: The left kidney is positioned in the upper part of the left abdomen, near the back. While the kidney itself is not usually a source of abdominal pain, issues such as kidney stones or infections can cause discomfort.
  4. Left Ureter: Urine is transported from the kidney to the bladder by the ureter, a tube. The left ureter travels down the left side of the abdomen, and issues such as kidney stones can lead to pain in this region.
  5. Left Ovary (in females): In females, the left ovary is situated in the lower abdomen. Pain or discomfort in this area may be related to ovarian issues.

Common Causes for Female Lower Left Abdominal Pain

Lower left abdominal pain in females can be caused by various factors related to the reproductive organs, gastrointestinal system, urinary tract, and more. Here are some common causes:

  1. Diverticulitis: This condition occurs when small, bulging pouches (diverticula) in the digestive tract become inflamed or infected, commonly causing pain in the lower left abdomen.
  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): Changes in bowel patterns, bloating, and stomach discomfort can all be symptoms of IBS. The ache usually goes away after a bowel movement.
  3. Ovarian Cysts: Cysts on the left ovary can lead to sharp or dull pain in the lower abdomen. These cysts are fluid-filled sacs that usually resolve on their own.
  4. Endometriosis: In this syndrome, the uterine lining develops outside of the organ. It can cause severe pain, especially during menstruation, and may affect the lower left abdomen.
  5. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): An infection of the female reproductive system is called PID. It can also produce additional symptoms including fever and irregular vaginal discharge, in addition to lower abdomen pain, particularly on the left side.
  6. Kidney Stones: While the kidneys are located in the back, kidney stones can cause referred pain to the lower abdomen. This pain is often severe and may be accompanied by other symptoms like blood in the urine.
  7. Ectopic Pregnancy: When a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube, it can lead to an ectopic pregnancy. Vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal discomfort, frequently on one side, may result from this.

Other Possible Causes

In addition to the common causes mentioned earlier, there are several other potential reasons for lower left abdominal pain in females. These may include:

  1. Muscle Strain: Activities that involve heavy lifting or sudden movements can strain the muscles in the lower abdomen, causing pain.
  2. Hernia: When an organ pulls through a weak area in the muscle or tissue holding it in place, a hernia results. A lower left abdominal hernia may cause discomfort in addition to a noticeable protrusion.
  3. Constipation: Difficulty passing stool can lead to lower abdominal pain, which is often felt on the left side.
  4. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): While the pain is more commonly felt in the lower abdomen, a UTI can sometimes cause discomfort on the left side as well.
  5. Gynecological Issues: Other gynecological issues such as uterine fibroids or adhesions can also cause lower abdominal pain.

Symptoms to Watch For

In addition to lower left abdominal pain, certain symptoms may accompany the pain, indicating a specific cause:

  1. Fever: A fever could indicate an infection, such as diverticulitis or PID.
  2. Nausea and Vomiting: These symptoms can occur with various conditions, including kidney stones and appendicitis.
  3. Changes in Bowel Habits: Persistent changes in bowel habits, such as diarrhea or constipation, should be evaluated.
  4. Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding: This can occur with ectopic pregnancy or other gynecological issues.
  5. Pain During Urination: This may indicate a UTI or kidney stones.

When to Seek Medical Attention

While some causes of lower left abdominal pain may resolve on their own or with home remedies, it’s important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:

  1. Severe or Prolonged Pain: Pain that is severe or lasts for an extended period should be evaluated.
  2. Fever: Abdominal discomfort and fever may be signs of an illness.
  3. Persistent Nausea and Vomiting: These symptoms can lead to dehydration and may indicate a more serious underlying condition.
  4. Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding: If you’re not menstruating or experience unusual bleeding, it’s important to see a doctor.
  5. Difficulty Passing Urine or Stool: This could indicate a blockage and requires immediate medical attention.

Diagnosis and Treatment

To diagnose the cause of lower left abdominal pain, your healthcare provider may perform a physical exam, review your medical history, and order tests such as:

  1. Blood Tests: These can help identify infections or other issues.
  2. Imaging Tests: X-rays, CT scans, or ultrasounds can provide detailed images of the abdomen, helping to identify potential causes.
  3. Urinalysis: This test can detect the presence of blood, infection, or other abnormalities in the urine.

Treatment for lower left abdominal pain depends on the underlying cause and may include:

  1. Medications: Pain relievers, antibiotics (for infections), and other medications may be prescribed.
  2. Lifestyle Changes: Dietary modifications, increased water intake, and regular exercise can help manage certain conditions.
  3. Surgery: In some cases, such as with severe diverticulitis or an ectopic pregnancy, surgery may be necessary.


Lower left abdominal pain in females can be caused by a variety of conditions, ranging from mild to serious. Understanding the possible causes, along with associated symptoms and when to seek medical attention, is essential for proper management and treatment. If you experience persistent or severe pain, fever, or other concerning symptoms, it’s important to consult with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Wasiur Rehman is fueled by a deep passion for advancing innovation in healthcare and medical research. He possesses a Bachelor's degree in Computer Science Engineering and has dedicated approximately two years to his role as a research analyst and SEO content writer. Currently, he is a valuable member of the DiseaseInfoHub team, serving as a content and research guide.

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